Tag Archives: milk

Almond Milk vs Cow Milk vs Soy Milk vs Rice Milk

Not too long ago, when being a milkman was a career option, the only thing you could expect to drown your cereal in was whole cow’s milk. Now, dairy milk comes in all sorts of varieties: whole milk, 2 percent, 1 percent, skim (fat-free), and even lactose-free milk.

For those with dietary or allergy concerns, there are also alternatives to cow’s milk. Almond, soy, and rice milk are popular alternatives to dairy, and they’re becoming even more available in stores across the U.S.

Each type of milk has its advantages and disadvantages, depending on a person’s diet, health, nutritional needs, or personal taste preferences.

For example, people in key development years — children over two, teens, and pregnant women — need proteins, vitamin D, and calcium. These are abundant in dairy milk. On the other hand, people who need to watch their calories or cholesterol — for weight reasons or heart health problems — should look to other options. Whole dairy milk contains more calories and cholesterol than any other milk.

In looking at the differences in these popular types of milks, you can determine which best suits your needs.

Dairy Milk

Dairy Milk

Whole milk is cow’s milk with none of the fat removed. It contains 8 grams of fat per cup, 8.5 percent nonfat milk solids, and 88 percent water. As none of the milk’s natural components are removed, it is high in natural proteins, fat, calcium, and vitamin D.

Other dairy milk has some or all of the fat removed. While whole milk has 150 calories in one cup, 1 percent milk has 110 calories, and skim milk has just 80 calories. Fat-free milk has all of the nutritional benefits of whole milk — a good source of protein, calcium, vitamins, and minerals — without the saturated fat and calories, though absorption of some vitamins may be reduced due to the lack of fat.

Lactose-free milk is processed to break down lactose, a natural sugar found in milk products. As with other milks, lactose-free milk is a good source of protein, calcium, vitamins, and minerals. The fat and cholesterol content of lactose-free milk varies, as it comes in 2 percent, 1 percent, and fat-free varieties.

The 3 Best Things About Dairy Milk

  • Whole milk can provide essential proteins and extra calories from fats as well as vitamins and minerals for infants and the elderly
  • Lactose-free versions are available for people who are lactose intolerant
  • Widely available in grocery stores and convenience stores, including grass-fed and low-heat pasteurized milk options

Con: Those that are not fat-free are high in saturated fat and calories, which is bad news for people with heart problems, high cholesterol, or those who are trying to lose weight. Dairy milk is also a common allergen for babies, children, and adults.

To read the rest of the article from Healthline, click HERE.

Osteoporosis: Nutrition and Children

When you hear osteoporosis, you often think of aging adults and their bone health. “Osteoporosis is a major cause of morbidity and economic burden around the world. By the year 2020, it is estimated that half of Americans 50 years of age or older will be at risk for osteoporotic fractures,” according to researchers from the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Osteoporosis Quick Facts:

  • Osteoporosis causes more than 8.9 million fractures annually (that’s a fracture every 3 seconds)
  • It is estimated that osteoporosis affects 75 million people in Europe, USA and Japan
  • By 2025, the estimated number of hip fractures occurring worldwide in men will be similar to that observed in women in 1990
  • Smoking can lead to a lower bone density and a higher risk of fracture
  • Childhood and adolescence are particularly valuable times to improve bone mass through exercise

The foundation for this condition is rooted in childhood and adolescence, when preventative measures can be taken.

Nutrition in Childhood

The primary source of nutrition for infants should be human milk (or instant formula, if human milk is not attainable). After this stage of life, dietary calcium comes from milk and other dairy products, which will account for 70-80% of calcium intake.

“Based on their report, the researchers recommend that pediatricians advise children and adolescents to increase daily consumption of calcium and foods and beverages containing vitamin D, which includes nonfat milk and low-fat yogurts” (Medical News Today).

Medical News Today also says that, “as part of their report, they say routine calcium supplementation is not advised for healthy children but that increased dietary intake is strongly encouraged.

To learn more about milk and it’s alternatives, here is a helpful article.


Medical News Today — http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/283174.php?sr

International Osteoporosis Foundation — https://www.iofbonehealth.org/facts-statistics#category-23

Corn, milk proteins make medicine easier to swallow

Developing medications for children can be challenging — taste and texture are important, but safety is also a major concern, according to pharmaceutical sciences professor Om Perumal at South Dakota State University. As co-founder and chief scientific officer of Tranzderm Solutions, he is adapting his corn protein-based drug delivery method to oral pediatric formulations.

“Our core technology is the same, but we’ve refined it and are finding new ways to utilize it,” said Perumal. His patented drug delivery system uses zein, a protein found in dried distillers grain, a co-product of ethanol production, to encapsulate the medication. The nanoparticles are approximately 500 times smaller than the diameter of a human hair.

To apply to oral pediatric formulations, Perumal explained, “We’ve modified the nanoparticles by coating them with milk proteins.” explained Perumal. “Our idea is to use products kids like.”

Providing federal incentive

Before 1998, about 70 percent of the drugs used for children had not undergone clinical testing for the newborn to 17-year-old population, according to the National Institutes of Health Medline Plus.

“Drugs behave differently in children than adults,” Perumal explained. However, the pharmaceutical industry did not have much incentive to do the testing because the pediatric medications make up only 10 percent of the pharmaceutical market.

To encourage the development of drugs customized for children, the federal government in 2002 passed the Best Pharmaceutical for Children’s Act. It grants incentives to drug companies conducting Food and Drug Administration-requested pediatric studies.

Read More at Science Daily

Allergen Cleaning Validation

Most food processing plants are designed to leverage the maximum number of different products on the fewest pieces of expensive equipment. One challenge for the food industry is changeovers from a product containing allergens to a similar product that does not contain allergens (or the same allergens) produced on the same equipment. Some companies employ precautionary allergen labeling such as “may contain” to all product on the same line or in the same facility; however, this may unnecessarily limit the choices of food-allergic consumers.

Furthermore, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has stated that precautionary labeling cannot be used as a substitute for Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), which implies that companies should try to clean between formulations. Other companies follow an allergen validation protocol to demonstrate an effective sanitation changeover and limit the use of precautionary statements to provide the allergic consumer with more food choices…

Sampling Procedures
Never do testing until you have a plan about what to do if you encounter a positive result. Planning for allergen testing requires clear communication and coordination with senior management to hold or destroy product, pending results of the testing. Some companies employ a testing plan termed “safe mode” wherein they run the same allergen product before and after sanitation so that if the swabs indicate inadequate cleaning, they can proceed to ship and have not put the consumer at risk. They can then modify the sanitation procedures prior to the next allergen validation testing. Management should plan to run the formula with the highest percentage of allergen to effectively assess the sanitation. Consideration should also be given to the form of the allergen, as peanut butter may be cleaned differently than peanut granules. Particulate materials can present a sampling challenge in which numerous samples may need to be tested to offer assurance that some sample would contain a particle if any were present. Management should also consider the method of sample shipping, laboratory scheduling and availability that may impact turnaround time of the results. Prior to testing, the swabs (certified allergen-free) from the kit manufacturer must be ordered and available for use (note: other swabs or sponges may actually contain the allergen due to recyclable materials or microbiological media in sponges). Other items to order include disposable gloves, phosphate buffer (certified allergen-free), labels for samples and a shipping container.

Read More at Food Safety Magazine

For a step by step guide on how to validate and verify allergen cleaning procedure where production equipment is not dedicated:

Click Here

Why are there regulations on milk?

How did regulations start?

As people moved to the cities, the milk supply became unhealthy.  Milk had to be transported longer distances and was held at higher temperatures for longer times. As a result, many people, especially children, became sick and died after consuming contaminated milk.

In the late 19th century, public health reformers started working toward a safer milk supply. One such reform was, in 1910, the city of Chicago required milk to be pasteurized.  Farmers and sellers sued the city stating that requirement was unnecessary and costly.  In 1914, the Illinois Supreme Court decision in Koy vs City of Chicago required pasteurization of milk sold in the city.  By 1920, regulations regarding milk had spread across the nation.

This proved to be a public health victory.  In 1938, disease outbreaks from milk counted for 25% of all outbreaks from food and water.  As of 2002, that number was down to 1%.

In 1924, the United States Public Health Service (USPHS), a branch of the FDA, developed what is now known as the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO).  The PMO contains provisions governing the production, processing, packaging and sale of Grade “A” milk and milk products.  This includes the barns, equipment, water, testing, cleaning, etc.  The 2013 PMO is over 430 pages.

The PMO is the basic standard used in the Voluntary Cooperative State – USPHS/FDA program for the Certification of Interstate Milk Shippers (IMS).  To be involved with Grade “A” milk, you must be “listed” in the IMS.  This includes dairy processors, laboratories, container and closures companies.  All 50 states, DC and US territories participate in the IMS program. Forty-six states have adopted the PMO for their own milk safety rules. The other 4 states have passed laws very similar.

Federal law prohibits the interstate sale of raw fluid milk.  In 1987, the FDA banned the state-to-state shipping of raw milk. They mandated the “pasteurization of all milk and milk products in final package form for direct human consumption.”


Why pasteurize?

The leading human illnesses attributed to milk before pasteurization were brucellosis, diphtheria and tuberculosis.  These are well-controlled or virtually eliminated in modern dairy herds in the United States. They do still occur in other countries.

Predominant illnesses today from raw milk and raw milk products are normally caused by Salmonella sp, Campylobacter sp, E. coli and Listeria sp.

RAW MILK OUTBREAKS in unpasteurized (raw) milk and raw milk products, United States 1998 – 2013       (15 years)

136 total outbreaks

102 were from fluid milk

28 were from raw milk cheese.

6 wer from multiple raw dairy products.

2,468 total illnesses, 2 deaths

1,803 fluid milk-related illnesses.

608 cheese-related illnesses, 2 deaths

57 illnesses from multiple raw dairy products.

From January 2015 to March 2016 (15 months), there were 15 recalls of unpasteurized milk.  The states include California (4), Pennsylvania (3), New York (3), Washington (2), Idaho, Tennessee and Indiana.

The contaminates were Campylobacter sp. (7), Salmonella sp. (2), E. coli 0157:H7 (4), Listeria sp. (4), and Cryptosporidium (1).   Two recalls were for more than one contaminant. Some recalls were in response to routine testing that yielded positive results. Others were due to illnesses related to the consumption of raw milk.  In states that allow the sale of raw milk, there are mandatory testing requirements of the raw milk that vary from state to state.  Some states require routine pathogen testing, while others do not until there is a complaint or outbreak.


How does raw milk get contaminated?

There are many avenues for contaminates to get into the raw milk.  It can come from the processing equipment such as the milking equipment, lines, tanks and containers. milking-1466846-640x480

Environmental factors can include dirt, mud, fecal matter in the straw, and standing water in the area.

Cows at feeding time on the dairy farm. Rear view

Rodents, including mice, rats, insects and chicken and poultry can contaminate the area and the milk.field-mouse-1526371-640x480 (1)

Other avenues can come from the humans on their boots, gloves, hands and soiled clothing. boots-1238700-639x852

The animals themselves can be the source of contamination due to the inadequate cleaning of the udders, broken skin or illness.

What testing is done?  Report to follow.

Illinois sales of Raw Milk is now legal

Illinois switch: On-the-farm raw milk sales now legal

Food Safety News

Two years of tweaking raw milk policies in Illinois has opened the state to legal raw milk sales for the first time in 30 years, but only on the farm where it is produced.

The change comes as a result of a regulatory process involving the Illinois Department of Public Health and the state’s Joint Committee on Administrative Rules. It marks a compromise that ends so-called milk clubs that were known for making deliveries in the Chicago area by prohibiting any off-the-farm sales.

Raw milk is milk that hasn’t been pasteurized with heat to kill pathogens such as E. coli, Salmonella, Listeria and campylobacter.

In the Land of Lincoln raw milk fetches $8 to $18 per gallon.

Read more here.

Got Night Milk???

Night milk could be a possible treatment for anxiety and insomnia.

Drinking cow’s milk produced at night may be a treatment for anxiety and insomnia, suggests an animal study in the Journal of Medicinal Food.

A glass of milk at bedtime has long been touted as a sleep aid. But the study found that milk collected at night, or night milk, has enhanced sedative effects in mice compared with milk produced during the day. Night milk significantly decreased the rodents’ physical activity, balance and coordination and increased sleep time compared to day milk, the research showed.

Mice fed night milk were more inclined to explore open spaces, an indication of reduced anxiety that was comparable to the effects from consuming diazepam, a drug commonly used to treat anxiety in people, the researchers said.

Night milk is rich in tryptophan, a sleep-inducing compound, and melatonin, a hormone that regulates the sleep-wake cycle, the study said.

Researchers in South Korea gave lab mice varying doses of dried milk powder made from cow’s milk collected during the day or night and mixed with distilled water. Analysis of the powders showed the night milk contained 24% more tryptophan and nearly 10 times as much melatonin as the day milk. Two groups of control mice received either injections of diazepam or plain drinking water.

The mice underwent a series of tests about an hour after treatments. Mice that got night milk were significantly less active than either the mice fed day milk or water-fed controls. Diazepam-treated mice were the least active. Balance and coordination were measured by the number of falls from a rotating bar during a 20-minute period.  Mice fed night milk on average fell four to five times, about twice as often as mice given day milk. Diazepam-treated controls fell about nine times, while the water-fed controls fell twice.

The effects of night milk haven’t been tested on people with sleep problems and anxiety disorders.


Wall Street Journal   December 15, 2015

FDA and the PMO


Final Rule for Preventive Controls for Human Food as it Relates to Dairy Products Produced under the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO)

FDA website as of 02 December 2015.

PMO.1. Do facilities operating under the PMO meet the requirements of the final preventive controls rule?
The preventive controls provision of FSMA (section 103) does not exempt dairy facilities that are required to register with the FDA. The 2013 PMO does not address all of the FSMA requirements, such as a written hazard analysis, those relevant to food allergens, or the potential presence of environmental pathogens in the food processing environment. Such provisions in the Preventive Controls rule could help prevent food safety problems from the consumption of food produced in PMO facilities. At its biennial conference in April 2015, the National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments (NCIMS) initiated work to modify the PMO; therefore we are extending the compliance date for PMO-regulated facilities to comply with the rule in order to make use of the existing system of state regulatory oversight for Grade “A” milk and milk products provided through the NCIMS and the food safety requirements of the PMO.

PMO.2. Does the preventive controls rule apply to dairy farms?
Establishments that meet the definition of a farm are not required to register under section 415 of the Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics (FD&C) Act. However, farms, including dairy farms, that conduct manufacturing/processing activities beyond those included in the farm definition in the Preventive Controls rule are subject to registration and would be subject to requirements of the Preventive Controls Rule unless a specific exemption applies.

PMO.3. What environmental and product testing for milk and dairy products is required under FSMA and the preventive controls rule?
The Preventive Controls Rule includes requirements for environmental monitoring and finished product testing as verification activities that would be applied as appropriate to the food, the facility, and the preventive control. Such testing would be appropriate for certain ready-to-eat dairy products, e.g., environmental monitoring for Listeria spp. in facilities making soft cheeses that are exposed to the environment.

State Raw Milk Laws

NCSL Maps State Raw Milk Laws as 2015 Legislatures Reach Adjournment

Perhaps no other organization in the country is better positioned to know the best time for drawing a new map of current state raw milk laws and policies than the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL).The bipartisan group, based in Denver, closely tracks state and territorial legislative sessions, and it has chosen this moment as they are adjourning to report on what it simply calls “State Milk Laws.” The 2015 legislative season is over in most Midwestern, Western, and border states, and others are rapidly reaching their adjournment dates.This was a busy state legislative season for raw milk. Doug Farquhar, the lawyer who follows raw milk action at the state legislative level for NCSL, says there were at least 29 raw milk bills in 19 states this time, and eight of those sought to make retail sales legal.The entire article can be found here:  Food Safety News

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